For citation:

Agapkina T.A. Blagovernaia Tsaritsa Khitra Byla Mudra: on One Synonymous Pair in the Russian Folklore. Studia Litterarum, 2020, vol. 5, no 2, pp. 336–389. (In Russ.)

DOI: 10.22455/2500-4247-2020-5-2-336-389

Author: Т.A. Agapkina
Information about the author:

Tatyana A. Agapkina, DSc in Philology, Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 a, Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow, Russia.

E‑mail: agapi‑This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Received: February 17, 2020
Published: June 25, 2020
Issue: 2020 Vol. 5, №2
Department: Folklore Studies
Pages: 336-389

UDK: 398
BBK: 82.3
Keywords: Russian folklore, synonymous pairs, charms, epics, verbal magic, Russian dialects.


The article is devoted to the study of synonymous pairs that are deviations from the words khitr-/mudr- (sly/wise) such as khitryi-mudryi, khiter-muder, khitrost’-mudrost’ etc., and a compound word khitromudryi in the Russian folklore. The essay analyzes those genres where these pairs are most widely represented: charms, folk epics, lamentations, wedding and lyrical songs as well as fairy tales. The author examines folklore contexts in which the synonymous pair khitryi-mudryi and the same-root pairs form a cycle of regular meanings; also, it focuses on what or who are regularly called khitrosti-mudrosti and khitryi-mudryi in different genres; which thematic fields these paired constructions are included in; their meanings and specificity of functioning within certain genres, etc. The article argues that most of the meanings implied by this synonymous pair relate to specific knowledge — whether it is wizardry, changelings, military affairs, professional skills, or skilful mastery of a craft. The authors suggests that this general meaning that generated specific meaning, e.g. “associated with secret knowledge, witchcraft, and wizardry” that has eventually become dominant. This meaning discloses itself in the dialect speech of different regions of the European Russia, especially widely represented in the Russian North and the adjacent territories of the North-West and North-East.


1 Arkhangel’skie byliny i istoricheskie pesni, sobrannye A.D. Grigor’evym v 1899–1901 gg. s napevami, zapisannymi posredstvom fonografa: v 3 t. [Arkhangelsk folk epics and historical songs collected by A.D. Grigor’ev in 1899–1901 with tunes recorded using a phonograph: in 3 vols.]. St. Petersburg, Tropa Troianova Publ., Kuloi Publ., 2002–2003. Vol. 1 (part 1–2); Vol. 2 (part 3); Vol. 3 (part 4). (In Russ.)

2 Arkhangel’skii oblastnoi slovar’ [Arkhangelsk regional dictionary], ed. by O.G. Getsova. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1980–. Vol. 1–. (In Russ.)

3 Astakhova A.M. Russkii bylinnyi epos na Severe [Russian folk epos in the North]. Petrozavodsk, Gos. izd. Karelo-Fin. SSR Publ., 1948. 396 p. (In Russ.)

4 Baglikova I.A. Khitrosti-mudrosti [Slyness/wisdom]. In: Lingvofol’kloristika [Linguistic folklore studies]. Kursk, Kursk. gos. un-t Publ., 2003, pp. 88–92. (In Russ.)

5 Barsov E.V. Prichitaniia Severnogo kraia [Lamentations of the Northern region], ed. by B.E. Chistova, K.V. Chistov. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1997. Vols. 1–2. (In Russ.)

6 Bakhmatov A.A., Podiukov I.A., Khorobrykh S.V., Chernykh A.V. Iurlinskii krai. Traditsionnaia kul’tura russkikh Iurlinskogo raiona v XIX–XX v. Materialy i issledovaniia [Yurlinsky region. Traditional culture of the Russians of Yurlinsky district in the 19th–20th centuries. Materials and studies]. Perm, Permskoe knizh. izd-vo Publ., 2003. 240 p. (In Russ.)

7 B-v I. Svadebnye obychai v Nemzhinskom prikhode Lodeinopol’skogo uezda [Wedding customs in Nemzhinskii parish of Lodeinopol’skii governorate]. Olonetskie gub. ved. Ch. neofits. [The Olonets governorate sheets, non-official part], 1897, no 19, pp. 2–3. (In Russ.)

8 Belomorskie stariny i dukhovnye stikhi: Sobranie A.V. Markova [The White Sea antiquities and spiritual verses: A.V. Markov’s collection], ed. by T.G. Ivanova; prepared by S.N. Azbeleva, Iu.I. Marchenko. Saint Petersburg, Dmitrii Bulanin Publ., 2002. 1080 p. (In Russ.)

9 Berezovich E.L., Kuchko V.S. Meniat’ shilo na mylo: dialektologicheskii kommentarii k frazeologizmu [Meniat’ shilo na mylo: dialectological commentary on the idiom]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Rossiiskaia i zarubezhnaia filologiia, 2017, vol. 9, issue 3, pp. 5–14. (In Russ.)

10 Blokhin S.A. Zagovory [Charms]. Trudy Orlovskoi arkhivnoi komissii [Proceedings of the Oryol archive commission]. Orel, Tip. gub. upravleniia Publ., 1889, vol. 5, pp. 12–20. (In Russ.)

11 Bobunova M.A. Edinitsy fol’klornoi leksikografii (v slovare iazyka bylin) [Units of folklore lexicography (in the dictionary of the epics language)]. Kursk, Izd-vo Kurskogo gos. ped. un-ta Publ., 2001. 151 p. (In Russ.)

12 Bogoraz V.G. Oblastnoi slovar’ kolymskogo russkogo narechiia [Regional dictionary of Kolyma Russian dialect]. Sbornik Otdeleniia russkogo iazyka i slovesnosti [Collection Studia Litterarum /2020 том 5, № 2 382 of Russian language and literature department]. St. Petersburg, Izd-vo Imp. Akademii nauk Publ., 1901, vol. 68, pp. 1–346. (In Russ.)

13 Bol’shoi tolkovyi slovar’ donskogo kazachestva [Large explanatory dictionary of the Don Cossacks], ed. by V.I. Degtiarev. Moscow, Russkie slovari Publ.; Atrel’ Publ.; AST Publ., 2003. 608 p. (In Russ.)

14 B-r-ov E. Pudozhskie svadebnye prichitan’ia [Pudoga wedding lamentations]. Olonetskie gub. ved. Ch. neofits. [The Olonets governorate sheets, Non-official part], 1867, no 7, pp. 110–113. (In Russ.)

15 Byliny Mezeni: Sever Evropeiskoi Rossii [Mezen’ Epics: European Russia North], in 25 vols. Vol. 3, ed. by A.A. Gorelov. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ.; Moscow, Klassika Publ., 2003. 531 p. (In Russ.)

16 Byliny Mezeni: Sever Evropeiskoi Rossii: v 25 t. [Mezen’ Epics: European Russia North: in 25 vols.] St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ.; Moscow, Klassika Publ., 2004. Vol. 4, ed. by A.A. Gorelov. 716 p. (In Russ.)

17 Byliny Pechory i Zimnego berega. Novye zapisi [Epics of Pechora and Zimnii Coast], ed. by A.M. Astakhova. Moscow, Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR Publ., Leningrad department, 1961. 608 p. (In Russ.)

18 Byliny Pechory: Sever Evropeiskoi Rossii: v 25 t. [Epics of Pechora: European Russia North: in 25 vols.] St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ.; Moscow, Klassika Publ., 2001. Vol. 2, ed. by A.A. Gorelov. 784 p. (In Russ.)

19 Byliny Severa [Epics of the North], records, introductory article and comm. by A.M. Astakhova. Moscow, Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR Publ., 1938. Vol. 1: Mezen’ i Pechora [Mezen’ i Pechora]. 656 p. (In Russ.)

20 Byliny: Sbornik [Epics: Collection], introductory article, prep. texts and comm. by B.N. Putilova. Leningrad, Sovetskii pisatel’ Publ., 1986. 552 p. (In Russ.)

21 Velikorusskie narodnye pesni: v 7 t. [Russian folk songs: in 7 vols.], ed. by prof. A.I. Sobolevskii. St. Petersburg: [s.n.], 1895–1907. (In Russ.)

22 Velikoustiuzhskii sbornik XVII v. (Predislovie i publikatsiia A.A. Turilova, A.V. Chernetsova) [Veliki Ustyug Collection of 17th century (introduction and edition by A.A. Turilov, A.V. Chernetsov)]. Otrechennoe chtenie v Rossii XVII–XVIII vekov [Otrechennye books in Russia of 17th–18th centuries], ed. by A.L. Toporkov, A.A. Turilov. Moscow, Indrik Publ., 2002, pp. 177–224. (In Russ.)

23 Vinogradov N. Zagovory, oberegi, spasitel’nye molitvy i proch. (po starinnym rukopisiam i sovremennym zapisiam): v 3 t. [Charms, oberegs, saving prayers, and so on (from old manuscripts and modern records): in 3 vols.] St. Petersburg, Tip. M-va putei soobshcheniia Publ., 1907–1909. (In Russ.)

24 Vinogradova L.N. Neprostye liudi v sel’skom soobshchestve: o liudiakh, nadelennykh sverkh”estestvennymi sposobnostiami. Chast’ 2. Mastera-professionaly, magicheskie spetsialisty, poludemonicheskie sushchestva [Complicated people in a rural community: about people with supernatural powers. Part 2. Masters-professionals, magic specialists, semi-demonic beings]. Slavianskii al’manakh, 2018, no 1–2, pp. 215–233. (In Russ.)

25 Voskresenskii V.A. Iz byta i poezii krest’ian Novgorodskoi gub., publ. D.K. Zelenina [On everyday life and poetry of Novgorod province peasants, ed. by D.K. Zelenin]. Zhivaia starina, 1905, no 1–2, pp. 1–56. (In Russ.)

26 Dal’ V. Tolkovyi slovar’ zhivogo velikorusskogo iazyka [Explanatory dictionary of the living and great Russian language], 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, Moscow, M.O. Volf Publ., 1880–1882 (1955). Vol. 1–4. (In Russ.)

27 Devgenievo deianie [Devgenievo deianie], prep., transl. and comm. by O.V. Tvorogov. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1999. Vol. 3: 11th–12th centuries, pp. 58–91. (In Russ.)

28 Dialektnyi slovar’ Nizhegorodskoi oblasti [Dialect dictionary of Nizhni Novgorod Region], ed. by L.A. Klimkova et al. Nizhni Novgorod, Izd-vo Nizhegorodskogo gos. un-ta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo, 2013–. Vols. 1–. (In Russ.)

29 Drevnie rossiiskie stikhotvoreniia, sobrannye Kirsheiu Danilovym [Ancient Russian poems collected by Kirsha Danilov], prep. by A.P. Evgen’eva, B.N. Putilov. 2nd ed. Moscow, Nauka, 1977. 488 p. (In Russ.)

30 Evgen’eva A.P. Ocherki po iazyku russkoi ustnoi poezii v zapisiakh XVII–XX vv. [Essays on the language of Russian oral poetry in the records of the 17th–20th centuries]. Moscow, Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1963. 346 p. (In Russ.)

31 Efimenko P.S. Materialy po etnografii russkogo naseleniia Arkhangel’skoi gubernii [Materials on ethnography of the Russian population of the Arkhangelsk province]. Moscow, 1878. Part 2: Narodnaia slovesnost’ [Folk literature]. Moscow, Tipo-litogr. S.P. Arkhipova i K° Publ., pp. 139–222. (In Russ.)

32 Efimenkova B.B. Severnorusskaia prichet’: Mezhdurech’e Sukhony i Iuga i verkhov’ia Kokshengi (Vologodskaia oblast’) [North Russian lamentations: Sukhona and Yug interfluve and the upper reaches of Kokshen’ga (Vologda Region)]. Moscow, Sovetskii kompozitor Publ., 1980. 392 p. (In Russ.)

33 Zagadki russkogo naroda [Riddles of the Russian people], comp. by D. Sadovnikov. St. Petersburg, Tipografiia N.A. Lebedeva Publ., 1876. 333 p. (In Russ.)

34 Zamknu zamki zamkami: Zagovorno-zaklinatel’naia poeziia Shadrinskogo kraia [Locked with locks: charms and spells poetry of the Shadrinsky region], comp. by V.N. Beketova, M.A. Kolmogortsev. Shadrinsk, Iset’ Publ., 2001. 119 p. (In Russ.)

35 Zamovy [Charms], comp. and comm. by G.A. Bartashevich. Minsk, Navuka i tekhnika Publ., 1992. 597 p. (In Belarusian)

36 Znatki, kolduny i chernoknizhniki: koldovstvo i bytovaia magiia na Russkom Severe [Enchanters, wizards, warlocks: witchcraft and household magic in the Russian North], ed. by A.B. Moroz. Moscow, Forum Publ., Neolit Publ., 2013. 592 p. (In Russ.)

37 Iz “Zhitiia Vasiliia Novogo”. Khozhdenie Feodory po vozdushnym mytarstvam [From Studia Litterarum /2020 том 5, № 2 384 The Life of Basil The New. Theodora’s road through the air hardships], prep. by Iu.A. Gribov and A.V. Pigin, transl. by M.B. Mikhailova and V.V. Semakov, comm. by A.V. Pigin. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2003. Vol. 8: 14th — 1st half of 16th century, pp. 494–527. (In Russ.)

38 Iz Tolkovogo Apostola [From Tolkovy Apostol], prep., transl. and comm. by O.P. Likhacheva. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1999. Vol. 2: 11th–12th centuries, pp. 82–125. (In Russ.)

39 Il’ia Muromets [Il’ia Muromets], prep. and comm. by A.M. Astakhova, ed. by D.S. Likhach. Moscow; Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1958. 559 p. (In Russ.)

40 Karpinskii M. Starinnye pesni grebenskikh kazakov. Sbornik materialov dlia opisaniia mestnostei i plemen Kavkaza [Old songs of the Grebensky Cossacks. Collection of materials for describing localities and tribes of the Caucasus]. Tiflis, Tip. glavnonachal’stvuiushchego grazhdanskoiu chastiiu na Kavkaze Publ., 1898, vol. 24, pp. 85–118. (In Russ.)

41 Komarovskikh A. Znakharstvo v Orlovskom uezde [Sorcery in Orlovsky Uezd]. In: Kalendar’ i pamiatnaia knizhka Viatskoi gub. na 1898 god [Calendar and memorable book of the Vyatka province for 1898]. Viatka, Gub. tipografiia Publ., 1898, pp. 136–147. (In Russ.)

42 Kofyrin N. Sueveriia krest’ian sela Peschanogo, Pudozhskogo u. [Superstitions of the peasants of Peschany village]. Olonetskie gub. ved. Ch. neofits. [The Olonets governorate sheets, Non-official part], 1900, 26 Oct., no 126, p. 2. (In Russ.)

43 Krasnozhenova M. Materialy po narodnoi meditsine Eniseiskoi gubernii [Materials on folk medicine of the Yenisei province]. Izv. Vost.-Sib. otdela imp. Rus. geograf. obshchestva [Proceedings of the East Siberian Department of the Emperor Russian Geographical Society]. Irkutsk, N.N. Sinitsyn Publ., 1910, vol. 39, pp. 10–23. (In Russ.)

44 Lil’-Adam Vil’er de. Derevnia Kniazhaia Gora i ee okrestnosti [Kniazhaya Gora village and its surroundings]. Zap. imp. Rus. geograf. o-va po Otd-niiu etnografii [Proceedings of the Emperor Russian Geographical Society within Ethnography Department]. St. Petersburg, M-vo vnutr. del Publ., 1871, vol. 4, pp. 235–366. (In Russ.)

45 Lirika russkoi svad’by [Russian wedding lyrics], prep. by N.P. Kolpakova. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1973. 324 p. (In Russ.)

46 Mansikka V.I. Zagovory Pudozhskogo u. Olonetskoi gub. [Charms of Pudozhsky uezd of Olonetskaya governorate]. Sborník filologický. Vydává III Třída Česke Akademie věd a umění. Sv. 8. Č. 1. Praha: Česká academia věd a umění, 1926, pp. 185–233. (In Russ.)

47 Minlos F.R. Rifmovannye sochetaniia v russkom fol’klore. Reduplikatsiia i parnye slova [Rhyming combinations in the Russian folklore. Reduplication and paired words]. Russkii iazyk v nauch. osveshchenii [Russian language in scientific perspective], 2005, no 1, pp. 96–115. (In Russ.)

48 Narodnye russkie skazki A.N. Afanas’eva: v 3 t. [A.N. Afanasyev’s Folk Russian fairytales: in 3 vols.], prep. by L.G. Barag, N.V. Novikov; ed. by E.V. Pomerantseva, K.V. Chistov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1984–1985. (In Russ.)

49 Nizhegorodskie zagovory (V zapisiakh XIX–XX vekov) [Nizhni Novgorod charms (in the records of 19th–20th centuries], comp. by A.V. Korovashko, K.E. Korepova. Nizhni Novgorod, [s.n.], 1997. 128 p. (In Russ.)

50 Nikitina S.E. Ob ume i razume (na materiale russkikh narodno-poeticheskikh tekstov) [About mind and reason (based on Russian folk poetry texts)]. In: Slavianskie etiudy. Sbornik k iubileiu S.M. Tolstoi [Slavic studies. Collection for the anniversary of S.M. Tolstaya]. Moscow, Indrik Publ., 1999, pp. 298–307. (In Russ.)

51 Nikolaev O.R. Skazki verkhnego techeniia Zapadnoi Dviny [Tales of the upper reaches of the Western Dvina river]. Russkii fol’klor, 1996, vol. 29, pp. 241–277.

52 Obriadovaia poeziia [Rites poetry], comp., intoduct., comm., texts prep. by V.I. Zhekulina, A.N. Rozova. Moscow, Sovremennik Publ., 1989. 735 p. (In Russ.)

53 Onezhskie byliny [Onega epics], epics selection and scientific editing by Iu.M. Sokolov, preparing texts for printing, notes and dictionary by V.I. Chicherov. Moscow, Izdanie gos. lit. muzeia Publ., 1948. 938 p. (In Russ.)

54 Onezhskie byliny, zapisannye A. F. Gil’ferdingom letom 1871 goda [Onega epics recorded by A.F. Gil’ferding in Summer 1871]. St. Petersburg, [s.n.], 1873. 1336 p. (In Russ.)

55 P., teacher. Drevnie ostatki narodnoi poezii v nashei Olonii [Ancient remains of folk poetry in our Olonetsky region]. Olonetskaia nedelia [Olonetskaya week], 1913, no 18, pp. 12–13. (In Russ.)

56 P.I. Mel’nikov-Pecherskii. Pesni, sobrannye pisateliami. Novye materialy iz arkhiva P.V. Kireevskogo [Songs collected by writers. New materials from the archive of P.V. Kireevsky], publ. by P.D. Ukhov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1968, pp. 589–598.

57 Pesni, sobrannye P.V. Kireevskim. Novaia seriia [Songs collected by P.V. Kireevsky. New series], ed. by acad. V.F. Miller & prof. M.N. Speransky. Moscow, O-vo liubitelei ross. slovesnosti pri Mosk. un-te Publ., 1911. Vol. 1: Pesni obriadovye [Rites songs], 1917. Vol. 2, part 1. (In Russ.)

58 Pesni, sobrannye P.N. Rybnikovym [Songs collected by P.N. Rybnikov]. St. Petersburg, Tip. A. Semena Publ., 1861–1867, part 1–4. (In Russ.)

59 Petukhov D. Gornyi gorod Dediukhin i okol’nye mestnosti [Mountain town of Dedyukhin and roundabout areas]. St. Petersburg, Tip. V. Bezobrazova i K° Publ., 1864. 217 p. (In Russ.)

60 Povest’ o prikhozhdenii Stefana Batoriia na grad Pskov [Novel about the arrival of Stefan Batory in the city of Pskov], prep., transl. and comm. by V.I. Okhotnikova. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Studia Litterarum /2020 том 5, № 2 386 Publ., 2005. Vol. 13: 16th century, pp. 534–607. (In Russ.)

61 Povest’ o spore zhizni i smerti [Novel about a life and death dispute], prep. and comm. by R.P. Dmitrieva, transl. by L.A. Dmitrieva. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2000. Vol. 10: 16th century, pp. 94–99. (In Russ.)

62 Podiukov I.A., Beliavin A.M., Krylasova N. B., Khorobrykh S.V., Antipov D.A. Usol’skie drevnosti. Traditsionnaia kul’tura russkikh kontsa XIX — XX v. [Usolsky antiquities. Traditional culture of Russians of the late 19th–20th centuries]. Usol’e, Permskoe knizhnoe izd-vo Publ., 2004. 240 p. (In Russ.)

63 Prisliv’ia ta prikazki: Liudina. Rodinne zhyttia. Rysy kharakteru [Proverbs and sayings: Man. Family life. Character trait], ed. by M.M. Paziak. Kiev, Naukova dumka Publ., 1990. 528 p. (In Ukrainian)

64 Propp V.Ia. Russkii geroicheskii epos [Russian heroic epos], 2nd ed. Moscow, Gos. izd-vo khudozh. lit. Publ., 1958. 603 p. (In Russ.)

65 Putilov B.N. Russkii i iuzhnoslavianskii geroicheskii epos: Sravnitel’no-tipologicheskoe issledovanie [Russian and South Slavic heroic epos: a Comparative typological study]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971. 315 p. (In Russ.)

66 Romanov E.R. Belorusskii sbornik [Belarusian collection]. Vitebsk, Tipo-lit. G.A. Malkina Publ., 1891, Vol. 5. 450 p. (In Russ.)

67 Russkie zagovory i zaklinaniia. Materialy fol’klornykh ekspeditsii 1953–1993 gg. [Russian charms and spells. Materials of folklore expeditions of 1953–1993], ed. by V.P. Anikin. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1998. 480 p. (In Russ.)

68 Savitskaia L.V. Khitrost’ kak svoistvo skazochnykh personazhei v russkoi volshebnoi skazke [Cunning as a property of fairy-tale characters in a Russian fairy tale]. Vіsnik Kharkіvs’kogo Natsіonal’nogo Unіversitetu іm. V.N. Karazіna [Proceedings of the Kharkov National University named after V.M. Karazin], no 787, Philology serіal, issue 52. Kharkov, 2007, pp. 125–129. (In Russ.)

69 Seliger: materialy po russkoi dialektologii: slovar’ [Seliger: materials on Russian dialectology. Dictionary], ed. by A.S. Gerd. Saint Petersburg, SPbGU Publ., 2003– 2017. Vols. 1–7. (In Russ.)

70 Serdiukova O.K. Slovar’ govora kazakov-nekrasovtsev [Dictionary of the dialect of the Cossacks-nekrasovtsy], ed. by V.I. Degtiarev. Rostov-on-Don, Rostov. un-t Publ., 2005. 320 p. (In Russ.)

71 Simina G. Ia. Pinezhskii govor: materialy po russkoi dialektologii [Pinega dialect: materials on Russian dialectology]. Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad. un-t Publ., 1976. 172 p. (In Russ.)

72 Skazki i legendy pushkinskikh mest: Zapisi na mestakh, nabliudeniia i issled. V.I. Chernysheva [Tales and legends of Pushkin places: field records, observations, and studies by V.I. Chernyshev]. Moscow, Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1950. 342 p. (In Russ.)

73 Skazki i predaniia Severnogo kraia [Tales and legends of the Northern region], records, article and comm. by I.V. Karnaukhova. Leningrad, Academia Publ., 1931. 446 p. (In Russ.)

74 Slovar’ vologodskogo rezhskogo govora (po materialam dialektologicheskikh ekspeditsii v Siamzhenskii raion Vologodskoi oblasti) [Dictionary of the Vologda Rezh dialect (based on the materials of dialectological expeditions to the Syamzhensky district of the Vologda region)], ed. by L.Iu. Zorina. Vologda, Vologodskii gos. un-t Publ., 2017. 604 p. (In Russ.)

75 Slovar’ oblastnogo vologodskogo narechiia. Po rukopisi P.A. Dilaktorskogo 1902 g. [Dictionary of the Vologda regional dialect. According to the manuscript of P.A. Dilaktorsky of 1902], prep. by A.N. Levichkin, S.A. Myznikov. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2006. 677 p. (In Russ.)

76 Slovar’ permskikh govorov: v 2 t. [Perm dialect dictionary: in 2 vols.] Perm’, Knizhnyi mir Publ., 2000–2002. Vols. 1–2. (In Russ.)

77 Slovar’ russkikh govorov Karelii i sopredel’nykh oblastei: v 6 t. [Dictionary of Russian dialects of Karelia and neighboring regions: in 6 vols.], ed. by A.S. Gerd. St. Petersburg, SPbGU Publ., 1994–2005. (In Russ.)

78 Slovar’ russkikh govorov Pribaikal’ia: v 4 t. [Dictionary of Russian dialects of the Baikal region: in 4 vols.], comp. by M.L. Arutiunian et al. Irkutsk, Izd-vo Irkutskogo universiteta Publ., 1986–1989. (In Russ.)

79 Slovar’ russkikh govorov severa Permskogo kraia [Dictionary of Russian dialects of the North of the Perm region], ed. by I.I. Rusinova. Perm’, Perm. un-t Publ., 2011. Vol. 1: A–V. 364 p. (In Russ.)

80 Slovar’ russkikh narodnykh govorov [Dictionary of Russian folk dialects], ed. by F.P. Filin, F.P. Sorokoletov, S.A. Myznikov. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1965–. Vols. 1–. (In Russ.)

81 Slovar’ russkogo iazyka XI–XVII vv. [Dictionary of the Russian language of 11th–17th centuries], ed. by S.G. Barkhudarov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975–. Vols. 1–. (In Russ.)

82 Slovar’ smolenskikh govorov [Dictionary of Smolensk dialects], ed. by A.I. Ivanova. Smolensk, SGPU Publ., 1974–2005. Vols. 1–11. (In Russ.)

83 Slovar’ sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka [Dictionary of modern Russian literary language], ed. by V.I. Chernyshev et al. Moscow, Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1950–1965. Vols. 1–17. (In Russ.)

84 Slovar’ sovremennogo russkogo narodnogo govora (d. Deulino Riazanskogo raiona Riazanskoi oblasti) [Dictionary of modern Russian folk dialect (Deulino, Ryazan district, Ryazan Region)], ed. by I.A. Ossovetsky. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969. 612 p. (In Russ.) 

85 Slovo Daniila Zatochnika [Supplication of Daniel the Exile], prep., transl. and comm. by L.V. Sokolova. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1997. Vol. 4: 12th century, pp. 268–283. (In Russ.)

86 Slovo o zhitii... sviatogo Stefana, byvshego episkopom v Permi... [Novel about life... of Saint Stephen, who was a Bishop in Perm], prep. by Iu.A. Gribov, transl. by E.G. Vodolazkin, N.F. Droblenkova, L.S. Shepeleva, comm. by T.R. Rudi. In: Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of literature of Ancient Russia], ed. by D.S. Likhachev, L.A. Dmitriev, A.A. Alekseev, N.V. Ponyrko. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2003. Vol. 12: 16th century, pp. 144–231. (In Russ.)

87 Sobinnikova V.I. Konstruktsii s odnorodnymi chlenami, leksicheskim tozhdestvom i parallelizmom v narodnykh govorakh [Constructions with homogeneous terms, lexical identity, and parallelism in folk dialects]. Voronezh, Voronezh gos. un-t Publ., 1969. 103 p. (In Russ.)

88 Sokolov A. Zagovory [Charms]. Izvestiia Obshchestva arkheologii, istorii i etnografii pri Kazanskom un-te [Proceedings of Archaeology, History and Ethnography Society in Kazan University], 1892, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 232–234. (In Russ.)

89 Sreznevskii I.I. Materialy dlia Slovaria drevnerusskogo iazyka po pis’mennym pamiatnikam [Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language on written monuments]. St. Petersburg, Tip. Imp. Akademii nauk Publ., 1893–1903. Vols. 1–3. (In Russ.)

90 Staroslavianskii slovar’ (po rukopisiam X–XI vv.) [Old Slavonic language dictionary (by manuscripts of 10th–11th centuries], ed. by R.M. Tseitlin, R. Vecherki & E. Blagova. Moscow, Rus. iazyk Publ., 1999. 842 p. (In Russ.)

91 Tikhanov P. Brianskii govor. Zametki iz oblasti russkoi etnologii [Bryansk dialect. Russian Ethnology notes]. Sbornik Otdeleniia russkogo iazyka i slovesnosti [Collection of the Department of Russian language and literature]. St. Petersburg, Imp. Akademiia nauk Publ., 1904, vol. 76, no 4, pp. 1–263. (In Russ.)

92 Titova L.V. Fol’klornye obrabotki XVIII v. Povesti o rozhdenii i pokhozhdeniiakh tsaria Solomona [18th century folklore processings of The Tale of King Solomon’s Birth and Adventures]. In: Istochniki po istorii russkogo obshchestvennogo soznaniia perioda feodalizma [Sources on the history of Russian social consciousness during the feudal period], ed. by E.K. Romodanovskaia, L.V. Titova. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1986, pp. 209–251. (In Russ.)

93 Toporov V.N. Prostranstvo i tekst [Space and text]. In: Tekst: semantika i struktura [Text: semantics and structure], ed. by T.V. Tsivian. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, pp. 227–284. (In Russ.)

94 Fasmer M. Etimologicheskii slovar’ russkogo iazyka [Etymological dictionary of the Russian language], transl. from German and add. by O.N. Trubachev. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964–1973. Vols. 1–4. (In Russ.) 

95 Fol’klor Novgorodskoi oblasti: Istoriia i sovremennost’. Po materialam fol’klornogo arkhiva Novgorodskogo universiteta za 30 let [Folklore of the Novgorod region: History and modernity. Based on the materials of the folklore archive of the Novgorod University for 30 years], comp. by O.S. Berdiaeva. Moscow, Strategiia Publ., 2005. 352 p. (In Russ.)

96 Fol’klornye zapisi A.A. Shakhmatova v Zaonezh’e [Folklore records of A.A. Shakhmatov in Zaonezhye], prep. of texts, articles and notes by A. Astakhova and S. Shakhmatova- Koplan, introduction by M. Azadovsky. Petrozavodsk, Gos. izdatel’stvo Karelo-Finskoi SSR Publ., 1948. 92 p. (In Russ.)

97 Fomin E.V. O sushchnostnykh parametrakh parnykh slov russkogo iazyka [On the essential parameters of paired words of the Russian language]. In: I.A. Boduen de Kurtene i mirovaia lingvistika: Trudy i materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay and world linguistics. Proceedings and materials of the International conference], ed. by K.R. Galiullin et al. Kazan, Kazanskii (Privolzhskii) federal’nyi un-t Publ., 2017, pp. 278–280. (In Russ.)

98 Frolova O. Russkaia mudrost’ v zhanre poslovitsy [Russian wisdom in the proverb genre]. In: Mudrost’ — pravednost’ — sviatost’ v slavianskoi i evreiskoi kul’turnoi traditsii. Sb. statei [Wisdom — righteousness — holiness in the Slavic and Jewish cultural tradition. Collection of articles], ed. by O.V. Belova. Moscow, Sefer Publ., 2011, pp. 213–224. (In Russ.)

99 Shein P.V. Velikoruss v svoikh pesniakh, obriadakh, obychaiakh, verovaniiakh, skazkakh, legendakh i t.p. [The Russian in his songs, rituals, customs, beliefs, tales, legends, etc.]. St. Petersburg, Tip. Imp. Akademii nauk Publ., 1898, vol. 1, issue 1; 1900, vol. 1, issue 2. (In Russ.)

100 Etimologicheskii slovar’ slavianskikh iazykov. Praslavianskii leksicheskii fond [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages. The Proto-Slavic lexical fund], ed. by O.N. Trubachev. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1974–. Vols. 1–. (In Russ.)

101 Ianovich V.M. Permiaki [Perm residents]. Zhivaia starina, 1903, no 1/2, pp. 52–171.(In Russ.)